Generally speaking, there are two main sorts of master’s degrees: course-based (taught) and research-based. Course-based master’s degrees are supported structured course modules taught through lectures, seminars, laboratory work or distance learning, while research-based master’s degrees require the scholar to hold out their own research project(s) during a specialized field of study. Research master’s degrees normally take a touch longer than taught master’s degrees to finish .

It is also possible to categorize master’s degrees in terms of material , level of specialization, sort of coursework and entry requirements, as you’ll see within the lists below…

Types of master’s degrees by subject/coursework type

The following list describes the distinct sorts of master’s degrees supported the foremost common course names utilized in university listings. As there’s no single standardized system, you’ll find variations between institutions in terms of both naming and course content.

Master of Arts (MA)

A Master of Arts (MA) is typically awarded in disciplines categorized as arts or social sciences, like communications, education, languages, linguistics, literature, geography, history and music. Candidates are taught through a mixture of lectures and seminars and assessed through an examination and/or a dissertation supported an independent scientific research .

Master of Science (MS, MSc)

A Master of Science (MS, MSc) is typically awarded in disciplines categorized because the sciences, like biology, chemistry, engineering, health and statistics. Certain fields like economics and therefore the social sciences can fall into both arts and sciences, with the individual institution choosing what to call their master’s course of study . In such subjects, it’s going to be the case that the MS features a stronger research component and may be seemed to hold more weight than an MA in some industries.

Master of Research (MRes)

A Master of Research (MRes) degree is meant to supply training in the way to become a researcher. Containing a significantly larger research element than MA or MSc programs, an MRes may give candidates a plus if they want to pursue a PhD or enter a career in research. Note that some institutions may ask MRes-style degree programs as an MSc, so it’s worth checking the course content carefully before applying.

Master by Research (MPhil)

A Master by Research (MPhil) is a complicated research-based degree which allows the candidate to specialise in a specific topic in-depth and independently, to finish one large scientific research . An MPhil is usually seen as a precursor to a PhD and is usually employed by institutions to permit students to ‘test the water’ before commencing a PhD course of study . This often takes longer to finish than other sorts of master’s degrees – though the length of your time and therefore the status awarded to an MPhil varies significantly counting on the country and institution.

Master of Studies (MSt)

Taught in just a couple of places (including the University of Oxford and therefore the University of Cambridge), a Master of Studies (MSt) degree is like the MA or MSc, requiring both classroom learning and therefore the completion of a thesis and an examination. An MSt can function a provisional enrolment for a PhD in some cases. the necessity for this category of master’s degree partly stems from the very fact that at Oxbridge universities students who have completed a Bachelor of Arts are automatically awarded an MA after an outlined time-period has passed. In contrast, those with a MSt have completed postgraduate coursework to realize the title.

Specialized and professional master’s degrees

There also are more specialized sorts of master’s degrees, often that specialize in a selected professional area. These are sometimes referred to as ‘tagged master’s degrees’, because they’re ‘tagged’ to a particular field, or professional master’s degrees, because they specialise in career development during a particular profession. Some professional master’s degrees start with the word Professional within the title, like the Professional Science Master’s Degree (PSM), a hands-on degree with an important practical component giving students the talents and knowledge needed to figure professionally in their chosen field.

As ever, classifications and course details will differ counting on the country and institution. Here are a number of the foremost common samples of specialized and professional master’s degrees:

Master of Business Administration (MBA)

The Master of Business Administration (MBA) is meant to offer students the talents and knowledge required for career progression in business and management roles. Candidates are given broad training altogether aspects of business, allowing them to use their learning to a spread of careers. Many MBA candidates are mid-career professionals, with most programs requiring a minimum of three years’ professional experience. you’ll also prefer to combine an MBA with a specialization like accounting or finance, and tailor the degree to a selected field of interest. Related master’s degrees include the Master of Professional Accountancy (MPAcc) and Master of Science in Information Systems (MSIS).

Master of humanistic discipline (MLS, MLIS, MSLS)

The Master of humanistic discipline is meant to offer students both academic and professional knowledge for entry into the workplace – during this case, libraries. Taught at an accredited library school, an MLS includes theoretical components along side a practicum (supervised practical teaching) or internship, ending with a search project or thesis. The MLS is usually a requirement for professional librarian positions within the US and Canada.

Master of Public Administration (MPA)

The Master of Public Administration may be a public policy degree almost like an MBA but that specialize in the general public sector instead of the private sector. Students can concentrate on areas like the environment, international administration and science and technology with an aim to figure for the govt , non-governmental organizations (NGOs), not-for-profit organizations and in consulting. The MPA combines academic and professional elements, with attention on policy analysis and management. Other public policy master’s degrees include Master of Public Policy (MPP), Master of Public Affairs (MPA) Master of Urban Planning (MUP) and Master of world affairs (MIA).

Master of Public Health (MPH)

The Master of Public Health has academic and professional elements, taking an interdisciplinary approach to areas associated with public health. Students are taught the way to monitor, diagnose and regulate the health concerns of communities through public policies. Many MPH degree programs are specialized in areas like epidemiology, global health, occupational health, and nutritional sciences. While some countries accept students with accredited bachelor’s degrees for the MPH, others only accept medical graduates.

Master of welfare work (MSW)

The Master of welfare work degree prepares students for careers within the sector of welfare work , that specialize in improving the standard of life for people , groups and communities. The MSW is obtainable either as a clinical degree allowing students to figure directly with clients, or as a macro-practice degree preparing students for add political advocacy and community organizing.

Master of Laws (LLM)

The Master of Laws degree is typically taken after having graduated from knowledgeable academic degree and provides candidates the prospect to mix their knowledge of the essential skills needed to become a lawyer with specialist knowledge gained through research during a particular area of law.

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MA, MALS, MLA/ALM, MLS)

The Master of Arts in Liberal Studies is an interdisciplinary program designed to supply rigorous teaching within the humanistic discipline . Candidates graduate with both depth and breadth of postgraduate knowledge, with MALS programs drawing from courses and instructors from across the university’s postgraduate curriculum. Typically, humanistic discipline students choose the course for a chance to intellectually challenge themselves, explore ideas and pursue knowledge, instead of to pursue a selected career path.

Master of Fine Arts (MFA)

The Master of Fine Arts may be a creative degree granted in disciplines like the visual, performing and studio arts. this might include creative writing, graphic design, photography, filmmaking, theatre and painting. Assessment and study are both practical, culminating during a major work or performance.

Master of Music (MM/MMus)

Awarded by universities and music conservatories, the Master of Music degree combines advanced studies during a specialist applied area chosen by the scholar (such as music performance, composition or conducting) with advanced studies in musical theory. MM degrees might be preparation for teaching music or to become knowledgeable during a chosen field.

Master of Education (MEd, MSEd, MIT, MAEd, MAT)

The Master of Education degree prepares students for careers in education. Some Master of Education degrees prepare student teachers to become certified, while others are more fitted to experienced, already certified teachers to concentrate on areas like curriculum, instruction, education , counseling and administration. The MIT and MAT degrees include coursework and a student teaching internship and cause the teacher certification qualification needed to show publicly schools.

Master of Engineering (MEng)

The Master of Engineering degree are often either academic (with attention on engineering theories and practice) or professional (with attention on preparing students for add the engineering field). While some MEng programs require students to become published in an industry journal, others involve training periods in industry or laboratories, or a mixture of the 2 so as to graduate.

Master of Architecture (M.Arch)

The Master of Architecture may be a master’s degree in architecture that assesses students through practical internships, final examinations and/or a thesis or final project so as to receive a license. As M.Arch degrees vary in a similar way , you’ll find different names for various sorts of programs. Students are required to supply coursework in subjects like design, building science, structural engineering, architectural history and theory and professional practice.



Engineering is one among the foremost popular subjects to review at university, and a really attractive option for international students studying abroad. It’s a hugely diverse subject that encompasses many fields and disciplines and provides students with invaluable skills for his or her future careers.

Degrees in engineering are available in countries and universities everywhere the planet , in the least levels of study including bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate levels.

Engineering program structure

Engineering is an incredibly broad subject, and no two programs are going to be an equivalent . A general engineering degree will aim to hide the basics of the topic , supplying you with the power to explore different topics before choosing a neighborhood of specialty.

Some of the topics and modules you’ll expect to review at undergraduate include:

  • Engineering mathematics
  • Electrical engineering/electronics
  • Mechanics and materials
  • Entrepreneurship and engineering

In many engineering degrees, you’ll study the foundations of the topic , and may then prefer to focus your studies during a specific area from the second year onwards.

Engineering degrees include workshops, group work, computer lab work and hands-on practical work. The program also will include lectures, seminars and tutorials, and you’ll be assessed through a mix of written exams, presentations, coursework and practical work.

Why study engineering abroad

Studying engineering overseas may be a good way to access the simplest engineering schools and programs from everywhere the planet .

Engineering may be a global profession, and attending university abroad can offer you unique experience that would be invaluable in your career after graduation. it’ll even be an excellent chance to broaden your personal horizons, meet new people and improve your language skills.

One important thing to recollect is to form sure the program you study is recognized by the administration in your home country if you propose to return to figure . for instance , degrees should be recognized by the Council of Engineering within the UK so as to practice as a chartered engineer.

Where to review engineering abroad

Choosing where you’ll study engineering abroad may be a huge decision to form . it’ll influence the standard of the education you’ll get and also your quality of life for 3 years or more. When understanding where you would like to review , think about:

  • The a part of the planet you would like to review in

Make sure the situation you select is somewhere you’ll enjoy living. believe the climate, culture and politics of every country when making your decision.

  • Where you would like to figure after graduation

If you would like to return home after you graduate to start out your engineering career, confirm the degree you get is recognized by the administration in your home country.

  • How well ranked the program or university is

If the content and reputation of the program is your main concern, base your decision on which universities have the simplest engineering schools and programs.

Best countries to review engineering

When it involves trying to find the countries with the foremost respected and highly ranked engineering programs and schools, the USA and UK are top of the list.

However, there are many other countries that have fantastic reputations for the standard of their engineering programs, including Germany, Switzerland and Singapore.

Engineering study abroad programs

When it involves studying engineering overseas, there are several different degree types you’ll choose between at undergraduate, graduate and doctorate levels, including:

  • BSc
  • BEng (Bachelor of Engineering)
  • MSc
  • MEng (Master of Engineering)
  • PhD
  • Doctor of Engineering (EngD or DEng)

At undergraduate level there’s little difference between the BSc and BEng, however BEng tend to involve more practical elements.

Master of Business Administration

Master of Business Administration

A Master of Business Administration may be a graduate degree that specialize in business administration, investment management. The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business administration like accounting, applied statistics, human resources, business communication, business ethics, business law, strategic management, business strategy, finance, managerial economics, management, entrepreneurship, marketing, supply-chain management, and operations management during a manner most relevant to management analysis and strategy. It originated within the us within the early 20th century when the country industrialized and corporations sought scientific management.

Most programs also include elective courses and concentrations for further study during a particular area, for instance , accounting, finance, marketing, and human resources. MBA programs within the us typically require completing about forty to sixty credits (sixty to ninety during a quarter system), much above the thirty credits (thirty-six to forty-five during a quarter system) typically required for degrees that cover a number of an equivalent material like the Master of Economics, Master of Finance, Master of Accountancy, Master of Science in Marketing and Master of Science in Management.

The MBA may be a terminal degree and knowledgeable degree. Accreditation bodies specifically for MBA programs ensure consistency and quality of education. Business schools in many countries offer programs tailored to full-time, part-time, executive (abridged coursework typically occurring on nights or weekends) and distance learning students, many with specialized concentrations.

The “Executive MBA”, or EMBA, may be a course of study almost like a MBA program, but is specifically structured for and targeted towards corporate executives and senior managers who are already within the workforce

What ‘MBA’ Stands For

MBA is that the common abbreviation for a Master of Business Administration degree, and recipients typically stop attending school after receiving it.

However, those that have an interest in conducting business research may plan to pursue a doctorate in business or management. Such students can earn either a Ph.D. or a Doctor of Business Administration degree, commonly referred to as a DBA.

Types of MBA Degrees

There are multiple sorts of MBA programs to settle on from, including full-time, part-time and executive MBA programs, says Rebecca Horan, a former admissions officer for the chief MBA program at ny University’s Stern School of Business. Each type is acceptable for a special quite student, she adds.

A full-time MBA program is an all-consuming educational experience that permits students to reset their career trajectories, Horan says. “You can use it to accelerate your career and you’ll also use it to try to to a career switch, because it’s such an intensive, all-in program.”

That said, a part-time program could also be a far better fit someone satisfied together with his or her career path but who wants to maneuver up at work, especially if the corporate is willing to subsidize the value of a part-time MBA program, Horan says. Someone who is proud of his or her current job might not want to go away it to pursue a full-time MBA program, she says.

Executive MBA programs, Horan adds, are designed for seasoned businesspeople who want to leap to subsequent level in their career and increase their leadership skills.

Among full-time MBA programs, experts say there are two primary types that MBA hopefuls should consider: a standard two-year MBA program and an accelerated one-year MBA program. One-year, full-time MBA programs typically cost but two-year programs and need less time, but the speed of those programs means students must carry an important academic workload, experts say.

The Average MBA Salary and Bonus

Starting salaries and signing bonuses vary greatly among MBA graduates, with alumni of highly ranked B-schools within the 2022 U.S. News Best Business Schools rankings earning notably quite their peers who graduated from lower-ranked schools.

Among the ten ranked B-schools where the typical salary and bonus were highest, the general average compensation was $172,265. against this , at the ten ranked B-schools where the typical salary and bonus were lowest, the general average compensation was $52,338.

U.S News data shows that pay among MBA grads depends on which sector they enter. those that add the consulting sector are paid a mean base salary of nearly $152,500, while those that work on a nonprofit typically makes approximately $85,100, or about $67,400 less.

What Skills an MBA Teaches

Business school professors say MBA programs help students develop the talents required to excel as business executives, like the power to quickly and accurately analyze large amounts of data and therefore the ability to develop smart solutions to business problems. MBA programs also teach students the way to inspire and motivate people and command respect, a skill which is significant for those that want to tackle ambitious business projects that need teamwork, MBA faculty say.

“An MBA degree is meant to show everything needed to run your own business,” Michael Provitera, an professor of organizational behavior at Barry University in Florida who has an MBA and a DBA, wrote in an email. “However, the program caters to managers that want to become leaders and students meaning to climb the company ladder.”

Phyllis Zimbler Miller, who received her MBA in finance from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania in 1980, says she has greatly benefited from the teachings she learned in MBA courses decades ago. “And a day of my life since then I even have used my graduate business education, which provides an efficient mindset and framework for watching situations and working on these situations that’s not provided in most undergraduate education,” Zimbler Miller, a screenwriter and book author, wrote in an email.

What Classes Are Included in an MBA

An MBA typically includes courses in accounting, finance, marketing, organizational behavior, economics, management and business ethics.

The breadth of the MBA curriculum are some things that James Reeves – a consultant who advises companies on the way to confront environmental, social or governance challenges – says he appreciated his MBA experience at the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business. He says the MBA program he completed in 2013 offered him exposure to multiple aspects of business and didn’t pigeonhole him into a selected career track.

Reeves adds that somebody who wants to become a topic matter expert could also be frustrated by the very fact that an MBA covers such a lot material, but the variability of courses was a point for him. He says his MBA provided a big-picture understanding of business and is beneficial as he consults with CEOs, the C-suite and members of boards of directors.

Horan says that a top-notch MBA program won’t only offer theoretical lessons in how business works, but also experiential learning opportunities where students do meaningful business projects for actual companies.

Horan, a brand strategist who earned her MBA at NYU, says that in her MBA program she worked on a marketing campaign for a chocolate company that needed to extend sales during the slow summer months. She says such projects help MBA students gain real-world skills.